SQL Sever: batch files to find instances and sqlcmd.exe/osql.exe
Posted by Jeroen Pluimers on 2010/08/19
In my VM’s, I often run different instances and/or versions of SQL Server.
Finding the right instance of SQL server, and the right version of SQLCMD.EXE / OSQL.EXE can be a pain.
That’s why I have written the two batch-files shown below for that.
They are not perfect, but they do work for me, and show a few interesting batch-file tricks.
This finds the most up-to-date SQLCMD.EXE (or OSQL.EXE for SQL Server 2000) and puts the location of it in the sqlcmd environment variable.
@echo off rem find the highest version of SQLCMD.EXE or OSQL.EXE and put it in the sqlcmd environment variable rem this prefers SQLCMD.EXE over OSQL.EXE set sqlcmd= for %%d in ("%ProgramFiles%", "%ProgramFiles(x86)%") do for %%v in (80, 90, 100) do for %%f in (OSQL, SQLCMD) do ( call :sqlcmdtest "%%~d\Microsoft SQL Server\%%v\Tools\Binn\%%f.EXE" %1 ) if !!==!%sqlcmd%! for %%f in (OSQL, SQLCMD) do ( call :find-on-path %%f.EXE ) if !%1!==!! echo SQLCMD: %sqlcmd% goto :exit rem be carefull not to specify the .EXE in the %%f FOR loop-expression, otherwise it tries to dine SQLCMD.EXE and OQSL.EXE in the current directory rem http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms178653.aspx rem 80 = SQL Server 2000 rem 90 = SQL Server 2005 rem 100 = SQL Server 2008 and 2008 R2 :find-on-path set sqlcmd=%~f$PATH:1 if not ""=="%sqlcmd%" set sqlcmd="%sqlcmd%" goto :exit :sqlcmdtest if exist %1 if !%2!==!! echo found %1 if exist %1 set sqlcmd=%1 :exit
- Clearing an environment varible by asigning an empty string to it
- Nested for loops
Note that when working with string literals in for loops, you should not put any file extension on it (if you do, the for loop will only match filenames).
So: In stead of having (OSQL.EXE, SQLCMD.EXE), you see (OSQL, SQLCMD) in the for loop, and the .EXE is concatenated later on.
- Splitting the body of the for loop over multiple lines using parenthesis ().
- Put the value you prefer at the end of the for loop
(so the last value that is found will be put in the sqlcmd environment variable)
- The mapping of SQL Server verions to numbers used in the directories (see also the documentation of the SQL Server sp_dbcmptleve stored procedure):
80 = SQL Server 2000
90 = SQL Server 2005
100 = SQL Server 2008
This batch file finds the SQL Server instances on the local machines from the naming of the SQL Server services that are running.
Note that it won’t work if you choose custom names for your SQL Server services (but that will probably break a lot of other stuff out there as well).
@echo off rem find best matching instance of SQL Server on this machine set sqlinstance= set sqlservice= for /f "usebackq tokens=1,2,3 delims=:$" %%i in (`sc query`) do ( rem %%j is " MSSQL" because we dropped space as a delimiter if "%%i"=="SERVICE_NAME" call :bare-service %%j %%k ) if !%1!==!! echo SQL Instance=%sqlinstance% if !%1!==!! echo SQL Service=%sqlservice% goto :exit :bare-service rem %1 equals "MSSQL" because of the command-line parsing trims spaces rem the order is important: we favour named instances over unnamed: if "%1"=="MSSQLSERVER" call :process-instance %1 . if "%1"=="MSSQL" call :process-instance MSSQL$%2 .\%2 goto :exit :process-instance if !%1!==!! echo found service "%1" providing instance "%2" if "%sqlinstance%"=="" set sqlinstance=%2& set sqlservice=%1 for /f "usebackq tokens=1,2,3,4" %%s in (`sc query %1`) do ( if "%%s"=="STATE" if !%1!==!! echo state of %1 is %%v ) goto :exit :exit
- use the for /f command to parse the output of sc query;
note the use of the usebackq, tokens and delims parameters in this command,
and the use of `backquotes` to parse the output of `sc query` which outputs fragments like shown below.
- Use the ampersand (&) to run two commands on one line
(the set sqlinstance=%2 and set sqlservice=%1).
- the sc query command, which queries the Service Controller for the configured services
- The use of call :bare-service to call a subroutine at label :bare-service inside a for loop
- The fact that a leading space in for loop variable %%j is trimmed when calling the :bare-service label.
sc query sample fragment:
SERVICE_NAME: MSSQL$SQLEXPRESS DISPLAY_NAME: SQL Server (SQLEXPRESS) TYPE : 10 WIN32_OWN_PROCESS STATE : 4 RUNNING (STOPPABLE,PAUSABLE,ACCEPTS_SHUTDOWN) WIN32_EXIT_CODE : 0 (0x0) SERVICE_EXIT_CODE : 0 (0x0) CHECKPOINT : 0x0 WAIT_HINT : 0x0
SQLRUN – tying it together
My final batch-file ties both together:
set sqlrun= call %~dp0sql-find-sqlcmd.bat %* call %~dp0sql-find-instance.bat %* if not !!==!%sqlcmd%! if not !!==!%sqlinstance%! set sqlrun=%sqlcmd% -S %sqlinstance% -E if !%1!==!! echo SQLRUN=%sqlrun%
The output of that batch-file is like this:
found "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\90\Tools\Binn\OSQL.EXE" found "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\90\Tools\Binn\SQLCMD.EXE" found "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\100\Tools\Binn\OSQL.EXE" found "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\100\Tools\Binn\SQLCMD.EXE" SQLCMD: "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\100\Tools\Binn\SQLCMD.EXE" found ".\SQLEXPRESS" state of service MSSQL$SQLEXPRESS with SQL Server instance .\SQLEXPRESS is RUNNING found "MSSQLSERVER" (.) state of service MSSQLSERVER with SQL Server instance . is RUNNING SQL Instance=.\SQLEXPRESS SQLRUN="C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\100\Tools\Binn\SQLCMD.EXE" -S .\SQLEXPRESS -E
Hope this helps a few people.