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Jeroen W. Pluimers on .NET, C#, Delphi, databases, and personal interests

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Archive for the ‘*nix-tools’ Category

Listing information on all active interfaces on MacOS part 1: getting the active interface names

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/07/29

Listing Listing information on all active interfaces on MacOS is a process involving multiple pieces, which then can be combined together.

Listing all active interfaces try 1

This involves both the -l (list with optional criteria) and -u parameter (the up criterion) as per excerpts from the [Archive.is] ifconfig(8) [osx man page] / [WayBack] ifconfig Man Page – macOS – SS64.com:

NAME
     ifconfig -- configure network interface parameters

SYNOPSIS
     ...
     ifconfig -l [-d] [-u] [address_family]
     ...

DESCRIPTION
     The ifconfig utility is used to assign an address to a network interface and/or configure network interface parameters.

     The following options are available:

     ...

     address_family
             Specify the address family which affects interpretation of the remaining parameters.  Since an interface can receive transmissions
             in differing protocols with different naming schemes, specifying the address family is recommended.  The address or protocol fami-
             lies currently supported are ``inet'', ``inet6'', and ``link''.  The default is ``inet''.  ``ether'' and ``lladdr'' are synonyms
             for ``link''.

     ...

     The -l flag may be used to list all available interfaces on the system, with no other additional information.  Use of this flag is mutually
     exclusive with all other flags and commands, except for -d (only list interfaces that are down) and -u (only list interfaces that are up).

Example:

ifconfig -l -u

Each interface on one line:

ifconfig -l -u | xargs -n1 echo

The problem is that on my system, it also lists bridges as active, whereas they are not:

# ifconfig -l -u | xargs -n1 echo
lo0
en1
en2
en0
p2p0
awdl0
bridge0
utun0
en10

# ifconfig bridge0
bridge0: flags=8863<UP,BROADCAST,SMART,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
    options=63<RXCSUM,TXCSUM,TSO4,TSO6>
    ether 6a:00:02:9a:23:f0 
    Configuration:
        id 0:0:0:0:0:0 priority 0 hellotime 0 fwddelay 0
        maxage 0 holdcnt 0 proto stp maxaddr 100 timeout 1200
        root id 0:0:0:0:0:0 priority 0 ifcost 0 port 0
        ipfilter disabled flags 0x2
    member: en1 flags=3<LEARNING,DISCOVER>
            ifmaxaddr 0 port 5 priority 0 path cost 0
    member: en2 flags=3<LEARNING,DISCOVER>
            ifmaxaddr 0 port 6 priority 0 path cost 0
    Address cache:
    nd6 options=201<PERFORMNUD,DAD>
    media: 
    status: inactive

So this is where the MacOS and BSD documentation is inaccurate.

Interface types

The above interfaces are many more than just ethernet or WiFi interfaces; there is a list at [WayBack] macos – What are en0, en1, p2p, and so on, that are displayed after executing ifconfig? – Stack Overflow by [WayBackmcint:

In arbitrary order of my familarity / widespread relevance:

lo0 is loopback.

en0 at one point “ethernet”, now is WiFi (and I have no idea what extra en1 or en2 are used for).

fw0 is the FireWire network interface.

stf0 is an IPv6 to IPv4 tunnel interface to support the transition from IPv4 to the IPv6 standard.

gif0 is a more generic tunneling interface [46]-to-[46].

awdl0 is Apple Wireless Direct Link

p2p0 is related to AWDL features. Either as an old version, or virtual interface with different semantics than awdl.

many VPNs will add additional devices, often “utun#” or “utap#” following TUN/TAP (L3/L2)virtual networking devices.

More on AWDL at [WayBack] ios – What is AWDL (Apple Wireless Direct Link) and how does it work? – Stack Overflow.

Listing all active interfaces try 2

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in *nix, *nix-tools, Apple, bash, Development, ifconfig, Mac OS X / OS X / MacOS, Power User, Scripting, Software Development | Leave a Comment »

-r argument to pipe (no argument for MacOS)- If no input is given to xargs, don’t let xargs run the utility – Unix & Linux Stack Exchange

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/07/28

TL;DR

There is a non-standard -r option to xargs that allows it to skip executing when there are no arguments at all.

On some operating systems, the -r is default.

MacOS has no -r, but does not execute xargs if there are no arguments given.

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in *nix, *nix-tools, bash, bash, Development, Power User, Scripting, Software Development, xargs | Leave a Comment »

Listing information on all active interfaces on MacOS part 2: adding DHCP/BOOTP and routing details

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/07/27

This is a continuation of yesterdays

Listing information on all active interfaces on MacOS part 1: getting the active interface names.

It is based on ideas in these StackExchange posts:

I threw most of the implementation details in the ideas away, as they were way to much based on empirical trial and error, than proper research.

So I tried doing the research and came up with the things below.

Getting the IPv4 address and DHCP/BOOTP information of a NIC

By using the ipconfig command, you can get specific details for a NIC like an IPv4 (with the getifaddr) or DHCP (with the getpacket option to get the latest DHCP packet):

for i in $(ifconfig -l -u); do if ifconfig $i | grep -q "status: active" ; then echo $i; fi; done | xargs -n1 -I_nic_ sh -c 'echo "_nic_: $(ipconfig getifaddr _nic_)"'

or DHCP/BOOTP:

for i in $(ifconfig -l -u); do if ifconfig $i | grep -q "status: active" ; then echo $i; fi; done | xargs -n1 -I_nic_ sh -c 'echo "_nic_: $(ipconfig getpacket _nic_)"'

The latter returns a very long list, which I wanted to shorten into a more readable format.

ipconfig syntax

You can find more information in the [Archive.is] ipconfig(8) [osx man page] / [WayBack] ipconfig Man Page – macOS – SS64.com excerpt:

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in *nix, *nix-tools, Apple, bash, Development, ifconfig, Mac OS X / OS X / MacOS, Power User, Scripting, Software Development | Leave a Comment »

windows – Is there any sed like utility for cmd.exe? – Stack Overflow

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/07/19

[WayBack] windows – Is there any sed like utility for cmd.exe? – Stack Overflow

TL;DR: many people suggest to use PowerShell, but there is GNU sed in Chocolatey

The chocolatey part:

The PowerShell part: read the other answers from the above question.

–jeroen

Posted in *nix, *nix-tools, CommandLine, Power User, PowerShell, RegEx, sed, Windows | Leave a Comment »

Obtaining system information from SMB – Nmap: Network Exploration and Security Auditing Cookbook – Second Edition

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/07/09

Based on

This scans the 192.168.1.0/24 network for SMB capable machines, and extracts information from them:

nmap -p139,445 --script smb-os-discovery 192.168.1.0/24

Note that experimenting this, I found out that nmap is also available on Chocolatey: [WayBack] Chocolatey Gallery | Nmap 7.70 (heck, since 2016, no less!).

I was hoping I wrote a little batch file around this, called find-smb-hosts.on.192.168.1.network.bat, because net view is working not so well on Windows 10 any more, but that failed, so here is the batch file:

@echo off
:: only works from older versions than Windows 10
:: the delay is caused by the "net view" scanning the network
:: the first for calls ping with the hostname
:: the second for gets the IP and hostname without waiting for a ping result
for /f "usebackq tokens=1* delims=\ " %%m in (`net view ^| findstr "\\"`) do (
  for /f "usebackq tokens=2,3 delims=[] " %%h in (`ping -4 %%m -n 1 -w 1 ^| grep Pinging`) do (
    echo %%i    %%h
  )
)
goto :eof

:: output of the first for without filtering (no starting newline):
:: Server Name            Remark
::
:: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
:: \\REVUE                Samba 4.7.3-git.30.54c196e5d35SUSE-oS15.5-x86_64
:: \\VCS-CI
:: The command completed successfully.

:: output of the second for without filtering (including the starting newline):
::
:: Pinging revue [192.168.1.62] with 32 bytes of data:
:: Reply from 192.168.1.62: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=64
::
:: Ping statistics for 192.168.1.62:
::     Packets: Sent = 1, Received = 1, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
:: Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
::     Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

The above batch file delivered many more results than this line:

nmap -p139,445 --script smb-os-discovery 192.168.71.1/24 | grep -w "\(report\|Computer name\)"

–jeroen

Posted in *nix, *nix-tools, nmap, Power User | Leave a Comment »

 
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