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Jeroen W. Pluimers on .NET, C#, Delphi, databases, and personal interests

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Archive for the ‘SQL Server’ Category

Case sensitivity for SQL identifiers · ontop/ontop Wiki · GitHub

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/07/08

For my link archive: [WayBack] Case sensitivity for SQL identifiers · ontop/ontop Wiki · GitHub:

  • Oracle and H2 changes unquoted identifiers to uppercase.
    Although technically possible, Oracle explicitly recommends to not use lowercase identifers. We do not support H2 with the setting DATABASE_TO_UPPER=FALSE, if this setting is enabled all queries with names and tables in lowercase must be quoted.
  • DB2 Names are not case sensitive.
    For example, the table names CUSTOMER and Customer are the same, but object names are converted to uppercase when they are entered. If a name is enclosed in quotation marks, the name becomes case sensitive. The schema name is case-sensitive, and must be specified in uppercase characters.
  • Postgres changes unquoted identifiers (both columns and alias names) to lowercase.
  • Mysql does not change the case of unquoted tables and schemas.
    It changes in lowercase the unquoted columns. Mysql tables are stored as files in the operating system the server runs on. This means that database and table names are not case sensitive in Windows, and case sensitive in most varieties of Unix or Linux. The backtick ` is used for enclosing identifiers such as table and column names.
  • Mssqlserver All connection string property names are case-insensitive.
    For example, Password is the same as password. Identifiers of objects in a database, such as tables, views, and column names, are assigned the default collation of the database. For example, two tables with names that differ only in case can be created in a database that has case-sensitive collation, but cannot be created in a database that has case-insensitive collation. Default SQL Server is not case sensitive. SELECT * FROM SomeTable is the same as SeLeCT * frOM soMetaBLe. Delimited identifiers are enclosed in double quotation marks (“) or brackets ([]). Identifiers that comply with the rules for the format of identifiers may or may not be delimited.


Posted in Database Development, DB2, Development, MySQL, OracleDB, PostgreSQL, SQL Server | Leave a Comment »

SQL Server, [] brackets, keywords and special characters

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/07/06

A few links for my archive:

  • [WayBack] sql server – What is the use of the square brackets [] in sql statements? – Stack Overflow answer by Michael Haren:

    The brackets are required if you use keywords or special chars in the column names or identifiers. You could name a column [First Name] (with a space)–but then you’d need to use brackets every time you referred to that column.

    The newer tools add them everywhere just in case or for consistency.


  • [WayBack] tsql – What characters are valid in an SQL Server database name? – Stack Overflow answer by Scott Munro:

    Delimited names – surrounded by square brackets or double quotes (if QUOTED_IDENTIFIER is set to ON) – can contain basically anything other than the delimiters themselves. It is even possible to use the delimiters within the name with some escape logic. Note though that it is only the closing escape character that must be escaped. In the first example below, the single instance of the opening escape character in the name does not need to be escaped whereas the closing escape character does have to be escaped (by replacing the single instance with two). I guess the logic here is that whatever code that is parsing these statements is looking for a closing escape character and has is not interested in nested opening escape characters.

    • [Test[Test] -> Test[Test
    • [Test]]Test] -> Test]Test

    The following is a description of the rules surrounding non delimited (nonquoted) identifier names in SQL Server 2012. It is an extract from the document Guide to Migrating from MySQL to SQL Server 2012.

    Schema Object Names

    In SQL Server 2012, an object name can be up to 128 characters long.

    Nonquoted identifier names must follow these rules:

    • The first character must be alphanumeric, an underscore (_), an at sign (@), or a number sign (#).
    • Subsequent characters can include alphanumeric characters, an underscore, an at (@) sign, a number sign, or a dollar sign.
    • The identifier must not be a Transact-SQL reserved word. Guide to Migrating from MySQL to SQL Server 2012 8
    • Embedded spaces or special characters are not allowed.

    Identifiers that start with @ or a number sign have special meanings. Identifiers starting with @ are local variable names. Those that start with a number sign are temporary table names.

    To quote an identifier name in Transact-SQL, you must use square brackets ([]).

  • [WayBack] Database Identifiers – SQL Server | Microsoft Docs:
    1. Classes of Identifiers
    2. Rules for Regular Identifiers
    3. See Also




Posted in Database Development, Development, SQL, SQL Server | Leave a Comment »

In case you cannot do BIGINT yet: A How-to Guide for Resolving Database Record Limitations | Distillery

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/06/30

Sometimes your development stack is not fully ready to handle signed 64-bit BIGINT values across all layers, which is when [WayBack] A How-to Guide for Resolving Database Record Limitations | Distillery comes in handy.

For data type ranges: [WayBack] int, bigint, smallint, and tinyint (Transact-SQL) – SQL Server | Microsoft Docs


Posted in Database Development, Development, Software Development, SQL Server | Leave a Comment »

SQL server: getting database names and IDs

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/06/29

A few statements go get database names and IDs based on these functions or system tables:

Part of it has the assumption that a master database always exists.

-- gets current database name
select db_name() as name

(1 row affected)
-- gets current database ID
select db_id() as dbid

(1 row affected)
-- gets all database IDs and names
select dbid,name from sys.sysdatabases
dbid   name
------ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1      master
5      acc

(2 rows affected)
-- gets current database name by ID
select db_name(db_id()) as name

(1 row affected)
-- gets case corrected database name for having a case insensitive collation sequence
select dbid,name from sys.sysdatabases 
where name='Master'
dbid   name
------ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1      master

(1 row affected)
-- gets case corrected database name for having a case sensitive collation sequence
select dbid,name from sys.sysdatabases 
where name = 'Master' collate Latin1_General_100_CI_AI
dbid   name
------ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1      master

(1 row affected)

Note that:

  • even though by default the SQL server collation sequence is case insensitive, it can make sense to do a case insensitive search, for example by using the upper function, specifying a collation, or casting to binary. I like upper the most, because  – though less efficient – it is a more neutral SQL idiom.
  • the most neutral case insensitive collation seems to be Latin1_General_100_CI_AI


  • [WayBack] SQL server ignore case in a where expression – Stack Overflow answered by Solomon Rutzky, summarised as:
    • Do not use upper as upper with lower does not always round-trip.
    • Do not use varbinary as it is not case insensitive.
    • Neither the = or like operators are case sensitive by default: both need a collate clause.
    • Find the collation of the column(s) involved; if it contains _CI, then you are done (it is already case insensitive); if it contains _CS, then replace that with _CI (case insensitive) and add that in a collate clause.
    • Collations are per predicate, so not per query, per table, per column nor per database. This means you have to specify them if you want to use a different one than the default.
  • [WayBack] What is Collation in Databases? | Database.Guide
    Latin1_General_100_CI_AI Latin1-General-100, case-insensitive, accent-insensitive, kanatype-insensitive, width-insensitive
  • [WayBack] Collation Info: Information about Collations and Encodings for SQL Server
  • [WayBack] SQL Instance Collation – Language Neutral Required:

    I recommend using Latin1_General_100_CI_AI. I recommend this because:

    1. If Latin1_General_CI_AI is supported, then there’s almost no chance thatLatin1_General_100_CI_AI (which is a far better choice) isn’t also supported. The version 100 collation has about 15,400 more sort weight definitions, plus 438 more uppercase/lowercase mappings. Not having those sort weights means that 15,400 more characters in the non-100 version equate to space, an empty string, and to each other. Not having those case mappings means that 438 more characters in the non-100 version return the character passed in (i.e. no change) for the UPPER() and LOWER() functions. There is no reason at all to want Latin1_General_CI_AI instead of Latin1_General_100_CI_AI. There might be a need if code was put into place to work around these deficiencies, and that code would behave incorrectly under the newer, better version of that collation. However, it’s highly unlikely that code was put into place to account for this, and extremely unlikely that if such code did exist, that it would error or doing things incorrectly due to the newer collation.
  • [WayBack] Differences Between the Various Binary Collations (Cultures, Versions, and BIN vs BIN2) – Sql Quantum Leap
  • [WayBack] How to do a case sensitive search in WHERE clause (I’m using SQL Server)? – Stack Overflow answered by Jonas Lincoln:

    By using collation or casting to binary, like this:

    SELECT *
    FROM Users
        Username = @Username COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CS_AS
        AND Password = @Password COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CS_AS
        AND Username = @Username 
        AND Password = @Password 

    The duplication of username/password exists to give the engine the possibility of using indexes. The collation above is a Case Sensitive collation, change to the one you need if necessary.

    The second, casting to binary, could be done like this:

    SELECT *
    FROM Users
        CAST(Username as varbinary(100)) = CAST(@Username as varbinary))
        AND CAST(Password as varbinary(100)) = CAST(@Password as varbinary(100))
        AND Username = @Username 
        AND Password = @Password 
  • [WayBack] sql – How to get Database name of sqlserver – Stack Overflow


Posted in Database Development, Development, Encoding, internatiolanization (i18n) and localization (l10), SQL Server | Leave a Comment »

(nullable) rowversion (Transact-SQL) – SQL Server | Microsoft Docs

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/06/09

I was not aware there could be a nullable [WayBack] rowversion (Transact-SQL) – SQL Server | Microsoft Docs, but it is possible:

Duplicate rowversion values can be generated by using the SELECT INTO statement in which a rowversioncolumn is in the SELECT list. We do not recommend using rowversion in this manner.

A nonnullable rowversion column is semantically equivalent to a binary(8) column. A nullable rowversion column is semantically equivalent to a varbinary(8) column.

You can use the rowversion column of a row to easily determine whether the row has had an update statement ran against it since the last time it was read. If an update statement is ran against the row, the rowversion value is updated. If no update statements are ran against the row, the rowversion value is the same as when it was previously read. To return the current rowversion value for a database, use @@DBTS.

You can add a rowversion column to a table to help maintain the integrity of the database when multiple users are updating rows at the same time. You may also want to know how many rows and which rows were updated without re-querying the table.

For example, assume that you create a table named MyTest. You populate some data in the table by running the following Transact-SQL statements.


Posted in Database Development, Development, Software Development, SQL, SQL Server | Leave a Comment »

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