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Jeroen W. Pluimers on .NET, C#, Delphi, databases, and personal interests

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Archive for the ‘Database Development’ Category

When MySQL characterset ‘utf’ does not allow you to enter some Unicode code points

Posted by jpluimers on 2022/01/06

Contrary to what many believe is that MySQL utf8 is not always full blown UTF-8 support, but actually utf8mb3, which has been deprecated for a while now.

Only utf8mb4 will give you full blown UTF-8 support.

This when someone reminded me of this in a Delphi application:

When I insert :joy: emoji into mysql varchar filed I got an error :
#22007 Incorrect string value: '\xF0\x9F\x98\x82' for column 'remarks' at row 1

database charset is utf8

Note that the :joy: emoji is 😂 and has Unicode code point U+1F602 which is outside the basic multilingual plane.



Posted in Conference Topics, Conferences, Database Development, Delphi, Development, Encoding, Event, MySQL, Software Development, UTF-8, UTF8 | Leave a Comment »

@isotopp: How fast is MySQL? I was casually operating under the impression, that a typical query resolution time is ~3ms. Turns out I was off 1-2 orders of magnitude…

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/07/13

Configured properly, even across network (see the answers in the Twitter thread below).

[WayBack] Thread by @isotopp: “How fast is MySQL? I was casually operating under the impression, that a typical query resolution time is ~3ms. Turns out I was off one or e […]”

How fast is MySQL?

I was casually operating under the impression, that a typical query resolution time is ~3ms.

Turns out I was off one or even two orders of magnitude.

A “select version()” type of nonquery is handled in around 20µs.
A typical query in a point-query or BKA environment (where id = const, … where id in (c1, c2, …)) is typically handled in 350µs.

This is based on looking at

select event_name,
AVG_TIMER_WAIT/1000000 as avg_us, max_timer_wait/1000000 as max_us, min_timer_wait/1000000 as min_us from performance_schema.events_statements_summary_global_by_event_name
where event_name = ‘statement/sql/select’;

| event_name | avg_us | max_us | min_us |
| statement/sql/select | 336.4440 | 2218.0450 | 36.4460 |
for about any of our servers with that kind of workload that I have been looking at.
This is obviously answered mostly from the buffer pool, because if you look at storage latencies, what you see here is that MySQL is in the same ballpark as NVME or SSD storage latencies (within 2x).
TL;DR: MySQL is fucking fast, and I had no idea how to quantify fucking fast before I looked into P_S

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Database Development, Development, MySQL, Software Development | Leave a Comment »

delphi – How to enable wirecompression on Firebird 3.0 – Stack Overflow

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/07/08

For my link archive:


Posted in Database Development, Delphi, Development, Firebird, Software Development | Leave a Comment »

Case sensitivity for SQL identifiers · ontop/ontop Wiki · GitHub

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/07/08

For my link archive: [WayBack] Case sensitivity for SQL identifiers · ontop/ontop Wiki · GitHub:

  • Oracle and H2 changes unquoted identifiers to uppercase.
    Although technically possible, Oracle explicitly recommends to not use lowercase identifers. We do not support H2 with the setting DATABASE_TO_UPPER=FALSE, if this setting is enabled all queries with names and tables in lowercase must be quoted.
  • DB2 Names are not case sensitive.
    For example, the table names CUSTOMER and Customer are the same, but object names are converted to uppercase when they are entered. If a name is enclosed in quotation marks, the name becomes case sensitive. The schema name is case-sensitive, and must be specified in uppercase characters.
  • Postgres changes unquoted identifiers (both columns and alias names) to lowercase.
  • Mysql does not change the case of unquoted tables and schemas.
    It changes in lowercase the unquoted columns. Mysql tables are stored as files in the operating system the server runs on. This means that database and table names are not case sensitive in Windows, and case sensitive in most varieties of Unix or Linux. The backtick ` is used for enclosing identifiers such as table and column names.
  • Mssqlserver All connection string property names are case-insensitive.
    For example, Password is the same as password. Identifiers of objects in a database, such as tables, views, and column names, are assigned the default collation of the database. For example, two tables with names that differ only in case can be created in a database that has case-sensitive collation, but cannot be created in a database that has case-insensitive collation. Default SQL Server is not case sensitive. SELECT * FROM SomeTable is the same as SeLeCT * frOM soMetaBLe. Delimited identifiers are enclosed in double quotation marks (“) or brackets ([]). Identifiers that comply with the rules for the format of identifiers may or may not be delimited.


Posted in Database Development, DB2, Development, MySQL, OracleDB, PostgreSQL, SQL Server | Leave a Comment »

SQL Server, [] brackets, keywords and special characters

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/07/06

A few links for my archive:

  • [WayBack] sql server – What is the use of the square brackets [] in sql statements? – Stack Overflow answer by Michael Haren:

    The brackets are required if you use keywords or special chars in the column names or identifiers. You could name a column [First Name] (with a space)–but then you’d need to use brackets every time you referred to that column.

    The newer tools add them everywhere just in case or for consistency.


  • [WayBack] tsql – What characters are valid in an SQL Server database name? – Stack Overflow answer by Scott Munro:

    Delimited names – surrounded by square brackets or double quotes (if QUOTED_IDENTIFIER is set to ON) – can contain basically anything other than the delimiters themselves. It is even possible to use the delimiters within the name with some escape logic. Note though that it is only the closing escape character that must be escaped. In the first example below, the single instance of the opening escape character in the name does not need to be escaped whereas the closing escape character does have to be escaped (by replacing the single instance with two). I guess the logic here is that whatever code that is parsing these statements is looking for a closing escape character and has is not interested in nested opening escape characters.

    • [Test[Test] -> Test[Test
    • [Test]]Test] -> Test]Test

    The following is a description of the rules surrounding non delimited (nonquoted) identifier names in SQL Server 2012. It is an extract from the document Guide to Migrating from MySQL to SQL Server 2012.

    Schema Object Names

    In SQL Server 2012, an object name can be up to 128 characters long.

    Nonquoted identifier names must follow these rules:

    • The first character must be alphanumeric, an underscore (_), an at sign (@), or a number sign (#).
    • Subsequent characters can include alphanumeric characters, an underscore, an at (@) sign, a number sign, or a dollar sign.
    • The identifier must not be a Transact-SQL reserved word. Guide to Migrating from MySQL to SQL Server 2012 8
    • Embedded spaces or special characters are not allowed.

    Identifiers that start with @ or a number sign have special meanings. Identifiers starting with @ are local variable names. Those that start with a number sign are temporary table names.

    To quote an identifier name in Transact-SQL, you must use square brackets ([]).

  • [WayBack] Database Identifiers – SQL Server | Microsoft Docs:
    1. Classes of Identifiers
    2. Rules for Regular Identifiers
    3. See Also




Posted in Database Development, Development, SQL, SQL Server | Leave a Comment »

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