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Archive for the ‘PowerShell’ Category

PowerShell: working around Get-NetFirewallRule not showing all the fields that Set-NetFirewallRule allows you to set

Posted by jpluimers on 2022/10/26

With APIs, you always hope that Get and Set methods mirror each other. More often than not, they don’t.

Take for instance these two:

They are far from symmetric: [Wayback/Archive] Get-NetFirewallRule shows far less than [Wayback/Archive] Set-NetFirewallRule allows you to set (first and foremost the various port related properties). It can be worked around though.

There are a few posts discussing this, of which I think these two are the most important:

Both above posts via [Wayback/Archive] “Get-NetFirewallRule” “LocalPort” – Google Search.

This is what I was after:

PowerShell "Get-NetFirewallRule -Name 'RemoteDesktop-UserMode-In-TCP' | Select-Object Name,DisplayName,Enabled,Direction,@{Name='Protocol';Expression={($PSItem | Get-NetFirewallPortFilter).Protocol}},Action,@{Name='LocalPort';Expression={($PSItem | Get-NetFirewallPortFilter).LocalPort}}"

Or actually:

PowerShell "Get-NetFirewallRule -Name 'RemoteDesktop-UserMode-In-TCP' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue | Select-Object Name,DisplayName,Enabled,Direction,@{Name='Protocol';Expression={($PSItem | Get-NetFirewallPortFilter).Protocol}},Action,@{Name='LocalPort';Expression={($PSItem | Get-NetFirewallPortFilter).LocalPort}}"

Let me explain this:

  1. Get-NetFirewallRule gets a firewall rule with a specific name, but can only get you a few properties that can be set through Set-NetFirewallRule. Name,DisplayName,Enabled,Direction are properties it understands. Protocol and LocalPort aren’t, but are often of interest.
  2. Get-NetFirewallPortFilter can get you both Protocol and LocalPort.
  3. There are more functions named like Get-NetFirewall*Filter, all of which require an -AssociatedNetFirewallRule <CimInstance> (or an -All) parameter which is what Get-NetFirewallRule returns. This way you can retrieve details not provided by Get-NetFirewallRule.
  4. The portions like @{Name='Protocol';Expression={($PSItem | Get-NetFirewallPortFilter).Protocol}} returns one property, in this case the Protocol property from Get-NetFirewallPortFilter returned as Protocol (the latter can be different if you want; the former needs to be Protocol).
  5. The -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue bit is to prevent this kind of exception when no -Name matches:
    Get-NetFirewallRule : No MSFT_NetFirewallRule objects found with property 'InstanceID' equal to
    'RemoteDesktop-UserMode-In-TCP_'.  Verify the value of the property and retry.
    At line:1 char:1
    + Get-NetFirewallRule -Name 'RemoteDesktop-UserMode-In-TCP_'
    + ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
        + CategoryInfo          : ObjectNotFound: (RemoteDesktop-UserMode-In-TCP_:String) [Get-NetFirewallRule], CimJobExc
       eption
        + FullyQualifiedErrorId : CmdletizationQuery_NotFound_InstanceID,Get-NetFirewallRule
    When the exception occurs, the execution continues, but since no object is returned the | pipe will not execute and no details are returned.

    I got this trick from [Wayback/Archive] firewall – How can I stop the Powershell command `Get-NetFirewallRule` from throwing an error? – Stack Overflow (thanks [Wayback/Archive] Pure.Krome and [Wayback/Archive] arco444)

Notes:

  • 3. also allows Get-NetFirewallRule to search for a group, then get all the firewall rules out of them, for instance with
    Get-NetFirewallRule -DisplayGroup "File and Printer Sharing" | ForEach-Object { Write-Host $_.DisplayName ; Get-NetFirewallAddressFilter -AssociatedNetFirewallRule $_ }
  • 4. also works the other way around, but only if you have elevated using an administrative token. The below lists all firewall rules involving port 3389 (Remote Desktop Protocol):
    PowerShell "Get-NetFirewallPortFilter | Where LocalPort -eq 3389 | Get-NetFirewallRule"

    Even a plain Get-NetFirewallPortFilter will get you an error without elevation:

    Get-NetFirewallPortFilter : Access is denied.
    At line:1 char:1
    + Get-NetFirewallPortFilter
    + ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
        + CategoryInfo          : PermissionDenied: (MSFT_NetProtocolPortFilter:root/standardci...tocolPortFilter) [Get-Ne
       tFirewallPortFilter], CimException
        + FullyQualifiedErrorId : Windows System Error 5,Get-NetFirewallPortFilter

You might want to return more details than just Protocol and Localport, so I dug around and made the below table to document the asymmetry.

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in CommandLine, Development, Power User, PowerShell, PowerShell, Remote Desktop Protocol/MSTSC/Terminal Services, Scripting, Software Development, Windows | Leave a Comment »

In some countries @archiveis redirect their domains using http-302 which can have trouble with multi-WAN

Posted by jpluimers on 2022/08/12

From [Wayback Archive.is blog — Why has the URL “archive-li” changed to…:

Why has the URL “archive-li” changed to “archive-ph”, and will this affect saved bookmarks at any time in the future?

Anonymous

This is temporary and only for some countries. All 7 domains work, so you do not need to change the bookmarks.

In The Netherlands all Archive Today domains redirect to archive.ph using a HTTP 302 redirect.

This caused trouble at my home location, but not at my brother, so I searched for local issues.

In the end, it was because I have dual WAN as network load balancing at home.

TL;DR

Modifying the routing table so traffic for 54.37.18.234 goes to WAN1 was my solution.

Finding the destination address

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in .NET, Development, Hardware, Network-and-equipment, Power User, PowerShell, routers, Scripting, Software Development | Leave a Comment »

Hardware MAC address formats (which I need for Wake-on-LAN.ps1)

Posted by jpluimers on 2022/07/06

Early june, I blogged about Wake-on-LAN from a Windows machine.

My plan was to adopt [Wayback/Archive.is] Wake.ps1 into Wake-on-LAN.ps1 (as naming is important).

One of the goals was to support multiple hardware MAC address formats, especially as Wake.ps1 had the below comment, but did support the AA-BB-CC-DD-EE-FF, though not the AA:BB:CC:DD:EE:FF hardware MAC address format:

<#
...
.NOTES
Make sure the MAC addresses supplied don't contain "-" or ".".
#>

A colon separated hardware MAC address would result in this error inside the call to the [Wayback/Archive.is] PhysicalAddress.Parse Method (System.Net.NetworkInformation) | Microsoft Docs:

Send-Packet : Exception calling "Parse" with "1" argument(s): "An invalid physical address was specified."

So I did some digging, starting inside the above mentioned blog post, and adding more:

  1. Wake.ps1 uses the [Wayback/Archive.is] Parse method in the [Wayback/Archive.is] PhysicalAddress.cs source code in C# .NET,  which contains code like this:
                //has dashes? 
                if (address.IndexOf('-') >= 0 ){ 
                    hasDashes = true;
                    buffer = new byte[(address.Length+1)/3]; 
                }
  2. The Perl script at [Wayback/Archive.is] wakeonlan/wakeonlan at master · jpoliv/wakeonlan that started my first blog post in this series which mentions:
    • xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx (canonical)
    • xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx (Windows)
    • xxxxxx-xxxxxx (Hewlett-Packard switches)
    • xxxxxxxxxxxx (Intel Landesk)

    I should rename the first one IEEE 802, as per this:

  3. The MAC address: Notational conventions – Wikipedia

    The standard (IEEE 802) format for printing EUI-48 addresses in human-friendly form is six groups of two hexadecimal digits, separated by hyphens (-) in transmission order (e.g. 01-23-45-67-89-AB). This form is also commonly used for EUI-64 (e.g. 01-23-45-67-89-AB-CD-EF).[2] Other conventions include six groups of two hexadecimal digits separated by colons (:) (e.g. 01:23:45:67:89:AB), and three groups of four hexadecimal digits separated by dots (.) (e.g. 0123.4567.89AB); again in transmission order.[30]

    The latter is used by Cisco (see for instance [Wayback/Archive.is] Cisco DCNM Security Configuration Guide, Release 4.0 – Configuring MAC ACLs [Support] – Cisco and [Wayback/Archive.is] Cisco IOS LAN Switching Command Reference – mac address-group through revision [Support] – Cisco), so another format to add:

    • xxxx.xxxx.xxxx (Cisco)
  4. [Wayback/Archive.is] PhysicalAddress.Parse Method (System.Net.NetworkInformation) | Microsoft Docs remarks:

    The address parameter must contain a string that can only consist of numbers and letters as hexadecimal digits. Some examples of string formats that are acceptable are as follows:

    • 001122334455
    • 00-11-22-33-44-55
    • 0011.2233.4455
    • 00:11:22:33:44:55
    • F0-E1-D2-C3-B4-A5
    • f0-e1-d2-c3-b4-a5

    Use the GetAddressBytes method to retrieve the address from an existing PhysicalAddress instance.

  5. After a bit more digging via [Wayback/Archive.is] “three groups of four hexadecimal digits separated by dots” – Google Search , I found that even more hardware MAC address formats are in use as per [Wayback/Archive.is] What are the various standard and industry practice ways to express a 48-bit MAC address? – Network Engineering Stack Exchange.

    I really do not have all the sources for the various representations for 48-bit MAC addresses, but I have seen them variously used:

    AA-BB-CC-DD-EE-FF
    AA.BB.CC.DD.EE.FF
    AA:BB:CC:DD:EE:FF
    AAA-BBB-CCC-DDD
    AAA.BBB.CCC.DDD
    AAA:BBB:CCC:DDD
    AAAA-BBBB-CCCC
    AAAA.BBBB.CCCC
    AAAA:BBBB:CCCC
    AAAAAA-BBBBBB
    AAAAAA.BBBBBB
    AAAAAA:BBBBBB

From the last list, which is far more complete than the others, I recognise quite a few from tools I used in the past, but too forgot the actual sources, so I took the full list from there and tried to name them in parenthesis after the links I found above and what I remembered:

  • AABBCCDDEEFF (Bare / Landesk)
  • AA-BB-CC-DD-EE-FF (IEEE 802 / Windows)
  • AA.BB.CC.DD.EE.FF (???)
  • AA:BB:CC:DD:EE:FF (Linux / BSD / MacOS)
  • AAA-BBB-CCC-DDD (???)
  • AAA.BBB.CCC.DDD (Cisco?)
  • AAA:BBB:CCC:DDD (???)
  • AAAA-BBBB-CCCC (???)
  • AAAA.BBBB.CCCC (Cisco / Brocade)
  • AAAA:BBBB:CCCC (???)
  • AAAAAA-BBBBBB (Hewlett-Packard networking)
  • AAAAAA.BBBBBB (???)
  • AAAAAA:BBBBBB (???)

Some additional links in addition to the ones above:

–jeroen

Posted in .NET, CommandLine, Development, Encoding, HEX encoding, Network-and-equipment, Power User, PowerShell, PowerShell, Scripting, Software Development | Leave a Comment »

Powershell code formatting and coding style and style guides: some links and elaboration

Posted by jpluimers on 2022/07/05

I started doing occasional PowerShell “work” long before Visual Studio Code came along with its [Wayback] PowerShell Extension.

Back then, my tool of choice was PowerGUI: Settling on PowerGUI for PowerShell development. Before that it was PowerShell ISE.

Since then, I fiddled around a bit with Visual Studio Code, but not much. Then I got treated for rectum cancer, and when writing this, I’m back to Visual Studio code with the PowerShell Extension and already figured out a lot has improved.

One of the things is code formatting. Back some 7 years ago, this was all not set in stone. Now it is, so it is important to adhere to.

I already posted Code Layout and Formatting: Indentation · PowerShell Practice and Style last year, so now it is good repeat the link in it and add some more.

For my link archive:

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Development, PowerShell, Scripting, Software Development, Technical Debt | Leave a Comment »

chocolatey-community/chocolatey-test-environment: A testing setup related to how the Chocolatey Package Verifier runs testing. Used for manual testing or prior to submission

Posted by jpluimers on 2022/06/29

On my list of things to play around with: [Wayback/Archive.is] chocolatey-community/chocolatey-test-environment: A testing setup related to how the Chocolatey Package Verifier runs testing. Used for manual testing or prior to submission

It sort of is a standalone version of the [Wayback] Chocolatey Software Docs | Package Verifier Moderation Service that you can use to check Chocolatey package that you develop/modify.

From the github repository README:

Requirements

You need a computer with:

  • a 64-bit processor and OS
  • Intel VT-x enabled (usually not an issue if your computer is newer than 2011). This is necessary because we are using 64bit VMs.
  • Hyper-V may need to be disabled for Virtualbox to work properly if your computer is a Windows box. NOTE: This may actually not be required.
  • At least 10GB of free space.

Setup

To get started, ensure you have the following installed:

  • Vagrant 1.8.1+ – linked clones is the huge reason here. You can technically use any version of Vagrant 1.3.5+. But you will get the best performance with 1.8.x+. It appears you can go up to Vagrant 2.1.5, but may have some issues with 2.2.2 and Windows guests (newer versions may be fine).
  • Virtualbox 4.3.28+ – 6.1.6 (this flows in the selection of Vagrant – 5.2.22 seems to have some issues but newer versions may work fine)
  • vagrant sahara plugin (vagrant plugin install sahara)

NOTE: If you decide to run with version 1.8.1 of Vagrant, you are going to need to set the VAGRANT_SERVER_URL environment variable as described in this forum post, otherwise, you will get an HTTP 404 error when attempting to download the base vagrant box used here.

Related: people wanting to do a similar thing for Linux: [Archive.is] chocolatey/choco: Has anyone ever tried to set up virtual box with linux (e.g. ubuntu) for choco testing ? – Gitter

Yes, it should work for choco newchoco pack, and choco push, running on mono.
[Wayback/Archive.is] https://github.com/chocolatey/choco/runs/3660684196?check_suite_focus=true

There is also a dockerfile available here:
[Wayback/Archive.is] https://github.com/chocolatey/choco/tree/develop/docker

However, as @AdmiringWorm said, there are not any official builds or official support at this time.

In my own private fork of choco however I’m using such interfaces as RestartManager

    //https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/api/restartmanager/nf-restartmanager-rmstartsession
    [DllImport("rstrtmgr.dll", SetLastError = true, CharSet = CharSet.Auto)]
    static extern int RmStartSession(out uint pSessionHandle,
                                     int dwSessionFlags,
                                     string strSessionKey);

    //https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/api/restartmanager/nf-restartmanager-rmendsession
    [DllImport("rstrtmgr.dll", SetLastError = true)]
    static extern int RmEndSession(uint pSessionHandle);

    //https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/api/restartmanager/nf-restartmanager-rmgetlist
    [DllImport("rstrtmgr.dll", SetLastError = true)]
    static extern int RmGetList(uint dwSessionHandle,
                                out uint pnProcInfoNeeded,
                                ref uint pnProcInfo,
                                [In, Out] ProcessInfo[] rgAffectedApps,
                                ref uint lpdwRebootReasons);

those will be windows specific indeed, but I’ll reach them later on.

Tarmo Pikaro

–jeroen

Posted in .NET, Chocolatey, CommandLine, Development, Power User, PowerShell, PowerShell, Scripting, Software Development, Windows | Leave a Comment »

 
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