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Jeroen W. Pluimers on .NET, C#, Delphi, databases, and personal interests

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Archive for the ‘SuSE Linux’ Category

OpenSuSE: the relation between /etc/var/named.d and /var/lib/named

Posted by jpluimers on 2019/10/24

For first time BIND named users on OpenSuSE there is often confusion on the relation between these directories:

  • /etc/named.d/
  • /var/lib/named/

For example here someone else struggled: [WayBackRe: Fwd: Re: [opensuse] Split DNS? Solved

This is how I inferred the workings:

The /etc/named.conf.include is re-generated at named start by running /usr/share/bind/createNamedConfInclude by including files that both match NAMED_CONF_INCLUDE_FILES in /etc/sysconfig/named and exist in the /etc/named.d/ directory.

At named startup, it also copies everything from /etc/named.d to /var/lib/named/etc/named.d

For details see


Posted in *nix, *nix-tools, bind-named, Linux, openSuSE, Power User, SuSE Linux | Leave a Comment »

Eigenes DynDNS mit Bind und Apache –

Posted by jpluimers on 2019/09/16

Dieser Artikel beschreibt, wie man einen eigenen Mechanismus für DNS-Updates als DynDNS-Alternative aufbaut.


This article describes how you can create your own mechanism for DNS-updates as alternative for DynDNS.

Interesting read: [WayBackEigenes DynDNS mit Bind und Apache –


The above post disappeared, but this one (which adds calling the DynDNS server from a Fritz!Box) is still up: [WayBack] Eigener DynDNS mit Bind, Apache und PHP | with an update at [WayBack] Eigener DynDNS mit dnsmasq, Apache und PHP |

Source code for both:

Related and background reading:


Posted in *nix, bind-named, Linux, openSuSE, Power User, SuSE Linux, Tumbleweed | Leave a Comment »

Introduction to Snapshots/Rollback with Snapper | ActiveDoc

Posted by jpluimers on 2019/07/01

The snapper documentation itself is big and hard to grasp at once, so start here for a few examples on how to get going, or how to assess your current configuration:

For a very good snapper introduction seems to be gone, but was present in the OpenSuSE documentation archive circa version 13.2 at [WayBackChapter 4. Snapshots/Rollback with Snapper | ActiveDoc which I’ve quoted below.

Between that version and LEAP, the retention got moved from “timeline” based to “number” based. More on that in these links:

Man pages:


4.1.1 snapshots and Disk Space #

When a snapshot is created, both the snapshot and the original point to the same blocks in the file system. So, initially a snapshot does not occupy additional disk space. If data in the original file system is modified, changed data blocks are copied while the old data blocks are kept for the snapshot. Therefore, a snapshot occupies the same amount of space as the data modified. So, over time, the amount of space a snapshot allocates, constantly grows. As a consequence, deleting files from a Btrfs file system containing snapshots may not free disk space!

Note: Snapshot Location

Snapshots always reside on the same partition or subvolume that has been snapshotted. It is not possible to store snapshots on a different partition or subvolume.

As a result, partitions containing snapshots need to be larger than “normal” partitions. The exact amount strongly depends on the number of snapshots you keep and the amount of data modifications. As a rule of thumb you should consider using twice the size than you normally would.

Tip: Freeing space / Disk Usage

In order to free space on a Btrfs partition containing snapshots you need to delete unneeded snapshots rather than files. Older snapshots occupy more space than recent ones.

Since the df does not show the correct disk usage on Btrfs file systems, you need to use the command btrfs filesystem df MOUNT_POINT. Displaying the amount of disk space a snapshot allocates is currently not supported by the Btrfs tools.


Posted in *nix, Linux, openSuSE, Power User, SuSE Linux, Tumbleweed | Leave a Comment »

ls colour codes on OpenSuSE tumbleweed when accessed from Mac OS X ssh

Posted by jpluimers on 2019/06/07

`ls` colour codes

`ls` colour codes

I got confused as I thought red text would mean an error.

But they’re not: greenish yellow on a read background means error (a symbolic link to a place that’s no longer there).

It’s the output of as the one at

Actually the script is here as the one at [WayBackcommand line – What do the different colors mean in the terminal? – Ask Ubuntu failed with errors like this one:

-bash: *.xbm: bad substitution

The full script output is below.

Since various terminals have a different mapping from colours in the ANSI escape code colour table, I used the standard HTML colours using (which slightly differs from the screenshot on the right):


Note that the shell on Mac OS X uses a different way of configuring colours CLICOLOR as described in [WayBacksettings – CLICOLOR and LS_COLORS in bash – Unix & Linux Stack Exchange. I might cover that another day.

Script output:

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in *nix, *nix-tools, bash, CSS, Development, HTML, HTML5, Linux, openSuSE, Power User, Software Development, SuSE Linux, Tumbleweed, Web Development | Leave a Comment »

When your btrfs partition is damaged.

Posted by jpluimers on 2019/05/27

A while ago, I somehow had a damaged btrfs partition that I found out after the virtualisation host without reason decided to reboot.

I’m not sure what caused that (by now the machine has been retired as it was already getting a bit old), but btrfs was panicking shortly after boot, so the VM as is was unusable.

In the end I had to:

  1. Boot from a Tumbleweed Rescue DVD (download Rescue CD – x86_64 from [WayBackopenSUSE:Tumbleweed installation – openSUSE)
  2. Add a fresh backup hard disk in read-write mote
  3. Mount the old one in read-only mode
  4. rsync -avloz over as much as I could
  5. Restore the VM from a backup
  6. Attach the backup hard disk
  7. Diff what I missed (only a few bits in the /etc tree and my home directory for which I hadn’t yet pushed the git repositories).

These didn’t work, but might work for others: [WayBackSDB:BTRFS – openSUSE – How to repair a broken/unmountable btrfs filesystem


Posted in *nix, btrfs, File-Systems, Linux, openSuSE, Power User, SuSE Linux, Tumbleweed | Leave a Comment »

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