The Wiert Corner – irregular stream of stuff

Jeroen W. Pluimers on .NET, C#, Delphi, databases, and personal interests

  • My badges

  • Twitter Updates

  • My Flickr Stream

  • Pages

  • All categories

  • Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

    Join 1,651 other followers

Archive for the ‘bash’ Category

Find the TTL for a domain and subdomain by getting to the authoritative nameserver first

Posted by jpluimers on 2018/11/15

Lets find the authoritative name server and TTL (time to live) for the example.org domain and www.example.org subdomain.

Notes:

1a: get parents of name servers

First start with a root server (dig: getting the list of root servers) to get parents of the name servers for example.org (don’t you love indirection!):

$ dig +norecurse +noall +authority @f.root-servers.net. example.org.
org.            172800  IN  NS  a0.org.afilias-nst.info.
org.            172800  IN  NS  a2.org.afilias-nst.info.
org.            172800  IN  NS  b0.org.afilias-nst.org.
org.            172800  IN  NS  b2.org.afilias-nst.org.
org.            172800  IN  NS  c0.org.afilias-nst.info.
org.            172800  IN  NS  d0.org.afilias-nst.org.

You can repeat this query for 2 more root servers to ensure they are in sync.

1b: get authoritative name servers from the parents

Now repeat with at least 3 of these to ensure they give matching results for the name servers for example.org:

$ dig +norecurse +noall +authority @b0.org.afilias-nst.info. example.org.
example.org.        86400   IN  NS  b.iana-servers.net.
example.org.        86400   IN  NS  a.iana-servers.net.
$ dig +norecurse +noall +authority @c0.org.afilias-nst.info. example.org.
example.org.        86400   IN  NS  a.iana-servers.net.
example.org.        86400   IN  NS  b.iana-servers.net.
$ dig +norecurse +noall +authority @a0.org.afilias-nst.info. example.org.
example.org.        86400   IN  NS  a.iana-servers.net.
example.org.        86400   IN  NS  b.iana-servers.net.

2a: getting the domain name servers from a public name server

A query to a public DNS server will also return a name server list, but then you would need to know that name server first. In addition, you can not ask for +authority; you have to ask for +answer NS in stead:

$ dig +norecurse +noall +answer NS @8.8.8.8 example.org.
example.org.        55312   IN  NS  a.iana-servers.net.
example.org.        55312   IN  NS  b.iana-servers.net.

The name servers on the list are not guaranteed to be authoritative, as this query returns an empty result:

$ dig +norecurse +noall +authority @8.8.8.8 example.org.

2b. ensuring the name servers are authoritative name servers

From the name servers returned, you can now check if the servers themselves return the same name servers. If so, then you are sure they are authoritative:

$ dig +norecurse +noall +authority @a.iana-servers.net. example.org.
example.org.        86400   IN  NS  a.iana-servers.net.
example.org.        86400   IN  NS  b.iana-servers.net.
$ dig +norecurse +noall +authority @b.iana-servers.net. example.org.
example.org.        86400   IN  NS  b.iana-servers.net.
example.org.        86400   IN  NS  a.iana-servers.net.

3: get the actual TTL

With the authoritative name servers, you can get the actual TTL:

$ dig +norecurse +noall +answer SOA @a.iana-servers.net. example.org.
example.org.        3600    IN  SOA sns.dns.icann.org. noc.dns.icann.org. 2017042729 7200 3600 1209600 3600
$ dig +norecurse +noall +multiline +answer SOA @a.iana-servers.net. example.org.
example.org.        3600 IN SOA sns.dns.icann.org. noc.dns.icann.org. (
                2017042729 ; serial
                7200       ; refresh (2 hours)
                3600       ; retry (1 hour)
                1209600    ; expire (2 weeks)
                3600       ; minimum (1 hour)
                )

I got the +multiline trick from [WayBackHOWTO: Using dig(1) to Find DNS Time to Live (TTL) Values – A-Team Systems.

4: get the count down TTL from a local name server

You can repeat the above process with a non-authoritative name server a few times to see the TTL decrease:

$ dig +norecurse +noall +answer SOA example.org.
example.org.        322 IN  SOA sns.dns.icann.org. noc.dns.icann.org. 2017042729 7200 3600 1209600 3600
$ dig +norecurse +noall +answer SOA example.org.
example.org.        321 IN  SOA sns.dns.icann.org. noc.dns.icann.org. 2017042729 7200 3600 1209600 3600

This is for instance what is returned by [WayBackexample.org DNS information – who.is example.org DNS information. DNS records such SOA, TTL, MX, TXT and more.

Public DNS servers having multiple servers per IP can even run disperse TTL numbers, for instance Google DNS at 8.8.8.8 does this:

$ dig +norecurse +noall +answer SOA @8.8.8.8 example.org.
example.org.        13  IN  SOA sns.dns.icann.org. noc.dns.icann.org. 2017042729 7200 3600 1209600 3600
$ dig +norecurse +noall +answer SOA @8.8.8.8 example.org.
example.org.        1388    IN  SOA sns.dns.icann.org. noc.dns.icann.org. 2017042729 7200 3600 1209600 3600
$ dig +norecurse +noall +answer SOA @8.8.8.8 example.org.
example.org.        10  IN  SOA sns.dns.icann.org. noc.dns.icann.org. 2017042729 7200 3600 1209600 3600

Note that +nssearch does not work for me

Using +nssearch as per [WayBackHow to find what Authoritative Name Server provided the answer using dig? – Server Fault fails for me:

$ dig +nssearch example.org
SOA sns.dns.icann.org. noc.dns.icann.org. 2017042729 7200 3600 1209600 3600 from server 199.43.135.53 in 83 ms.
SOA sns.dns.icann.org. noc.dns.icann.org. 2017042729 7200 3600 1209600 3600 from server 199.43.133.53 in 144 ms.
;; connection timed out; no servers could be reached

This reveals this in the bold values:

  • The authoritative nameserver sns.dns.icann.org is not publicly accessible.
  • TTL 7200 (7200 seconds is 2 hours).

Future research

Authoritative answers might not be present in dig queries on some platforms. I need to dig deeper into [WayBackterminal – Dig not returning authority section? – Ask Different to see why.

Glue records are always tricky to get right: [WayBackHow to check domain NS glue records using dig « Admins eHow

–jeroen

Posted in *nix, *nix-tools, bash, Development, dig, DNS, Internet, Power User, Scripting, Software Development | Leave a Comment »

How to Setup Chroot SFTP in Linux (Allow Only SFTP, not SSH)

Posted by jpluimers on 2018/11/07

I need to script this one day: [WayBackHow to Setup Chroot SFTP in Linux (Allow Only SFTP, not SSH)

–jeroen

Posted in *nix, Awk, bash, Communications Development, Development, Internet protocol suite, Power User, Scripting, Software Development, SSH, TCP | Leave a Comment »

aha (Ansi HTML Adapter) with clickable URIs

Posted by jpluimers on 2018/10/02

aha is great to generate HTML from ANSI text (i.e. the coloured output on a Linux console).

But it doesn’t generate clickable URIs (it can’t yet by itself as it only looks one character in the future).

The thread at https://github.com/theZiz/aha/issues/20 suggested a case-insensitive regex through sed but the exact suggestion failed for a few reasons I will explain below.

First the bash alias (requires both aha and perl):

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in *nix, *nix-tools, bash, bash, Development, Perl, Power User, RegEx, Scripting, Software Development | Leave a Comment »

pure-bash-bible/README.md – book for doing things in bash without external tools

Posted by jpluimers on 2018/09/21

[WayBack] pure-bash-bible/README.md at master · dylanaraps/pure-bash-bible · GitHub:

The goal of this book is to document known and unknown methods of doing various tasks using only built-in bash features. Using the snippets from this bible can help remove unneeded dependencies from scripts and in most cases make them faster. I came across these tips and discovered a few while developing neofetchpxltrm and other smaller projects.

The snippets below are linted using shellcheck and tests have been written where applicable. Want to contribute? Read the CONTRIBUTING.md. It outlines how the unit tests work and what is required when adding snippets to the bible.

See something incorrectly described, buggy or outright wrong? Open an issue or send a pull request. If the bible is missing something, open an issue and a solution will be found.

Via:

jeroen

Posted in *nix, *nix-tools, bash, bash, Development, Power User, Scripting, Software Development | Leave a Comment »

I am on a Mac that is bound to an AD Domain. The AD Domain has a 90 days pass…

Posted by jpluimers on 2018/08/27

[WayBack] I am on a Mac that is bound to an AD Domain. The AD Domain has a 90 days password expiration policy. When will my password expire? $ cat bin/is-passwor… – Kristian Köhntopp – Google+

For my link archive:

Script copied to [WayBack] Kristian Köhntopp: I am on a Mac that is bound to an AD Domain. The AD Domain has a 90 days password expiration policy. When will my password expire?  · GitHub

–jeroen

Posted in *nix, Apple, bash, Development, Mac, MacBook, MacBook Retina, MacBook-Air, MacBook-Pro, MacMini, Power User, Scripting, Software Development | Leave a Comment »

 
%d bloggers like this: