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Jeroen W. Pluimers on .NET, C#, Delphi, databases, and personal interests

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Archive for the ‘DNS’ Category

Microsoft subdomains

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/06/02

Almost every company I know has more than one subdomain, but while researching why could not be archived in the WayBack machine, I realised how many they have and bumped into a few sites listing most of them:

All via subdomains – Google Search.


Posted in Development, DNS, Internet, Power User, Software Development, Web Development | Leave a Comment »

Need to do some reading on local domains on the internal network

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/04/09

A long time I wondered why I saw ESXi systems on my local network have two entries in their /etc/hosts file:

[root@ESXi-X10SRH-CF:~] cat /etc/hosts
# Do not remove the following line, or various programs
# that require network functionality will fail.   localhost.localdomain localhost
::1     localhost.localdomain localhost   ESXi-X10SRH-CF ESXi-X10SRH-CF

Then I bumped into someone who had a different setup:

[root@ESXi-X10SRH-CF:~] cat /etc/hosts
# Do not remove the following line, or various programs
# that require network functionality will fail.   localhost.localdomain localhost
::1     localhost.localdomain localhost esxi

So now I knew that the first entry can have a domain resolving it (it still makes be wonder why ziggo is using a top-level domain to resolve local stuff; but searching for did not get me further on that).

So I installed a quick ESXi machine on that local network, and got the same.

When back home the machine still thought it was, though clearly I was outside a Ziggo network

I wanted to get rid of it, but that was hard.

Since I forgot to take screenshots beforehand, I can only provide the ones without a search domain bellow.

Reminder to self: visit someone within the Ziggo network, then retry.

Normally you can edit things like these in the default TCP/IP stack. There are two places to change this:

Neither of these allowed me to change it to a situation like this, but luckily the console did.

In the below files, I had to remove the bold parts, then restart the management network (I did keep a text dump, lucky me):

[root@esxi:/etc] grep -inr ziggo .
./vmware/esx.conf:116:/adv/Misc/HostName = ""
./hosts:5: esxi
[root@esxi:/etc] cat /etc/resolv.conf 
[root@esxi:/etc] cat /etc/hosts
# Do not remove the following line, or various programs
# that require network functionality will fail.   localhost.localdomain localhost
::1     localhost.localdomain localhost esxi

Future steps

  1. Read more on local domains, search domains and related topics
  2. Configure a local domain on my local network, so DHCP hands it out, and DHCP handed out host names are put in the local DNS
  3. Test if all services on all machines still work properly

Reading list

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in DNS, ESXi6.5, ESXi6.7, Hardware, Internet, Mainboards, Network-and-equipment, Power User, SuperMicro, Virtualization, VMware, VMware ESXi, X10SRH-CF, X9SRi-3F | Leave a Comment »

Domeinnaam prijzen – Internetproviders en Hosting – GoT

Posted by jpluimers on 2021/03/12

For my link archive: domain name registration prices in The Netherlands: [WayBack] Domeinnaam prijzen – Internetproviders en Hosting – GoT


Posted in DNS, Hosting, Internet, Power User | Leave a Comment »

Some postfix notes

Posted by jpluimers on 2020/10/15

Postfix has documentation on primary MX and secondary MX, but not on tertiary MX.

If the primary MX is down, you have a series of secondary MX and tertiary MX that configured the same way, MX DNS priority for primary, the series of secondary MX and tertiary MX have increasing numbers, and the primary MX goes down, then senders can get “too many hops” as secondary and tertiary MX are looping.

I had a hard time finding a good and easy solution as these queries do not return many meaningful results:

Here are some links that helped getting this solved:

  • [WayBack] Postfix Frequently Asked Questions: What does “Error: too many hops” mean?

    Short answer: this message means that mail is probably looping. If you see this after you turned on Postfix content filtering, then you have made a mistake that causes mail to be filtered repeatedly. This is cured by appropriate use of content_filter=header_checks=, and body_checks=.

    Long answer: the message has too many Received: message headers. A received header is added whenever Postfix (or any MTA) receives a message. A large number of Received: message headers is an indication that mail is looping around.

    Side comment: email uses the opposite of the technique that is used to avoid IP forwarding loops. With IP, the sender sets a TTL (time to live) field in the IP header. The field is decremented by each router. When the TTL reaches zero the packet is discarded and an ICMP error message is returned to the sender.

  • [WayBack] Error: too many hops (in reply to end of DATA command) · Issue #713 · mail-in-a-box/mailinabox · GitHub

    In case you or anyone else was/is wondering about the mydestination = localhost thing, the reason it has to be set to just localhost is because MIAB uses Postfix’s “virtual domain hosting” ( support. Per the documentation for mydestination at

    Do not specify the names of virtual domains – those domains are specified elsewhere. See VIRTUAL_README for more information.

    (in the context of MIAB every domain is a virtual domain).

In my case a series of these:

Received: from ( [])
    by (Postfix) with ESMTP id 26395200FE
    for <>; Fri, 29 Jun 2018 11:01:02 +0200 (CEST)
Received: from (unknown [])
    by (Postfix) with ESMTP id 077A5E937
    for <>; Fri, 29 Jun 2018 11:01:02 +0200 (CEST)

Specifying the transport will likely help me solve this problem:

This all came down to editing /etc/postfix/transport adding lines for each relayed domain like this one:    smtp:[]

Lines like it direct to use the smtp transport and use a specific host (normally, the relay transport is being used).

After this:

# postmap /etc/postfix/transport
# rcpostfix reload

I choose not to configure [WayBack] Postfix Configuration Parameters: relay_recipient_maps, but might if I had an automated way of replicating lists of valid (and invalid) users.

Another option was confirmed at [WayBack] Software-update: Postfix 3.4.0 / 3.3.3 / 3.2.8 / 3.1.11 / 3.0.15 – Computer – Downloads – Tweakers by [WayBack] menocchio. Thanks!

Dat is volgens mij eenvoudig op te lossen met relay_transport of transport_maps. Zie ook: Postfix transport table format.

Daarmee dwing je de secondary servers de mail altijd af te willen leveren bij de primary server (en dus niet bij een andere secondary). En als de primary niet online is, dan wacht ie netjes tot dat wel het geval is :-)

relay_transport = smtp:[primarymx.domain.tld]

Likely relevant: [WayBack] The Book of Postfix

Maybe relevant in the future:

Found on my hunt for the above:

Try not to make typo’s: [WayBack] postfix appears not finding MX records or host names from DNS

Interesting thought, but not sure how smart SPAM bots are now: [] Spam relaying through secondary MX… – Google Groups

To archive this:

  1. Rename from
  2. To
  3. Then save in


Posted in Communications Development, Development, DevOps, DNS, Infrastructure, Internet, Internet protocol suite, Power User, SMTP | Leave a Comment »

Duh moment: when is querying your DNS infrastructure and it appears to be uptimerobot

Posted by jpluimers on 2020/07/28

From the hindsight department [WayBack] Nice when someone in Dallas using is querying your DNS infrastructure for many permutations of domains…… – Jeroen Wiert Pluimers – Google+.

Wolfgang Rupprecht gave me some hints on the cause, as the IP address Google Search used to be of a gaming server: [WayBack] TwotailsTikat’s Profile – Member List – Minecraft Forum

After a good night sleep,

# nslookup name =

In retrospect: perfectly normal behaviour for monitoring machine “snip”.

Log by


Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in *nix, DNS, Internet, Monitoring, Power User, Uptimerobot | Leave a Comment »

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