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Archive for the ‘etckeeper’ Category

Zypper: list info on all patterns, so you can find out which pattern provides a package

Posted by jpluimers on 2022/05/11

I wanted to know which pattern provides [WayBack] etckeeper which is in the [WayBack] openSUSE Software package etckeeper.

It seems no built-in search query can do that, so I built one my own.

Since the result takes quite a while to produce, the output is a pattern.txt that you can manually search.

This is the command:

zypper search -t pattern | grep "|" | tail -n +2 | perl -pe 's/^.*? \| //' | perl -pe 's/ *\| .*$//' | xargs -I {} sh -c "zypper info -t pattern {}" > patterns.txt

The content is like this (the 2017 date shows I wrote this a long time ago):

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in *nix, *nix-tools, bash, bash, Development, etckeeper, Linux, Perl, Power User, Scripting, sed, Software Development | Leave a Comment »

Some postfix notes

Posted by jpluimers on 2020/10/15

Postfix has documentation on primary MX and secondary MX, but not on tertiary MX.

If the primary MX is down, you have a series of secondary MX and tertiary MX that configured the same way, MX DNS priority for primary, the series of secondary MX and tertiary MX have increasing numbers, and the primary MX goes down, then senders can get “too many hops” as secondary and tertiary MX are looping.

I had a hard time finding a good and easy solution as these queries do not return many meaningful results:

Here are some links that helped getting this solved:

  • [WayBack] Postfix Frequently Asked Questions: What does “Error: too many hops” mean?

    Short answer: this message means that mail is probably looping. If you see this after you turned on Postfix content filtering, then you have made a mistake that causes mail to be filtered repeatedly. This is cured by appropriate use of content_filter=header_checks=, and body_checks=.

    Long answer: the message has too many Received: message headers. A received header is added whenever Postfix (or any MTA) receives a message. A large number of Received: message headers is an indication that mail is looping around.

    Side comment: email uses the opposite of the technique that is used to avoid IP forwarding loops. With IP, the sender sets a TTL (time to live) field in the IP header. The field is decremented by each router. When the TTL reaches zero the packet is discarded and an ICMP error message is returned to the sender.

  • [WayBack] Error: too many hops (in reply to end of DATA command) · Issue #713 · mail-in-a-box/mailinabox · GitHub

    In case you or anyone else was/is wondering about the mydestination = localhost thing, the reason it has to be set to just localhost is because MIAB uses Postfix’s “virtual domain hosting” ( support. Per the documentation for mydestination at

    Do not specify the names of virtual domains – those domains are specified elsewhere. See VIRTUAL_README for more information.

    (in the context of MIAB every domain is a virtual domain).

In my case a series of these:

Received: from ( [])
    by (Postfix) with ESMTP id 26395200FE
    for <>; Fri, 29 Jun 2018 11:01:02 +0200 (CEST)
Received: from (unknown [])
    by (Postfix) with ESMTP id 077A5E937
    for <>; Fri, 29 Jun 2018 11:01:02 +0200 (CEST)

Specifying the transport will likely help me solve this problem:

This all came down to editing /etc/postfix/transport adding lines for each relayed domain like this one:    smtp:[]

Lines like it direct to use the smtp transport and use a specific host (normally, the relay transport is being used).

After this:

# postmap /etc/postfix/transport
# rcpostfix reload

I choose not to configure [WayBack] Postfix Configuration Parameters: relay_recipient_maps, but might if I had an automated way of replicating lists of valid (and invalid) users.

Another option was confirmed at [WayBack] Software-update: Postfix 3.4.0 / 3.3.3 / 3.2.8 / 3.1.11 / 3.0.15 – Computer – Downloads – Tweakers by [WayBack] menocchio. Thanks!

Dat is volgens mij eenvoudig op te lossen met relay_transport of transport_maps. Zie ook: Postfix transport table format.

Daarmee dwing je de secondary servers de mail altijd af te willen leveren bij de primary server (en dus niet bij een andere secondary). En als de primary niet online is, dan wacht ie netjes tot dat wel het geval is :-)

relay_transport = smtp:[primarymx.domain.tld]

Likely relevant: [WayBack] The Book of Postfix

Maybe relevant in the future:

Found on my hunt for the above:

Try not to make typo’s: [WayBack] postfix appears not finding MX records or host names from DNS

Interesting thought, but not sure how smart SPAM bots are now: [] Spam relaying through secondary MX… – Google Groups

To archive this:

  1. Rename from
  2. To
  3. Then save in


Posted in *nix, Communications Development, Development, DevOps, DNS, etckeeper, Infrastructure, Internet, Internet protocol suite, Linux, Power User, SMTP | Leave a Comment »

sed double expression: match, replace in one line, overwrite file

Posted by jpluimers on 2020/04/15

A while ago, I needed to conditionally replace in files, so I used sed and a regular expression, though usually I dislike those.

However, since the system had a very basic install, there was not much choice.

Luckily back then, my Google foo returned these:

This allowed me to do a double expression (the first matches a pattern, the second performs the actual replacement within the matching lines).

In case my Google foo in the future fails:

## -i causes no backup to be saved, but does in-place replacement
## since we run under git, we can always restore
## combined with a double expression (the first matches, the second executes) this is very powerful
sed -i -e '/#.*AVOID_DAILY_AUTOCOMMITS=.*$/s/^.//' /etc/etckeeper/etckeeper.conf && git diff | more


Posted in *nix, Development, etckeeper, Linux, Power User, RegEx, Software Development | Leave a Comment »

OpenSuSE: multi-megabyte binary blob `/etc/udev/hwdb.bin` does not need to be versioned with `etckeeper` – via Unix & Linux Stack Exchange

Posted by jpluimers on 2019/04/22

I wondered [WayBacklinux – Why is this a binary multi-megabyte blob /etc/udev/hwdb.bin under /etc? – Unix & Linux Stack Exchange.

All my OpenSuSE systems had the /etc/udev/hwdb.bin file with sizes varying between 7.5 and 10 megabytes with many of the zypper dist-upgrade causing updates.

Luckily the system also contains these files which had valid unit definitions, so the file was generated/updated during boot:

  • /usr/bin/systemd-hwdb
  • /usr/lib/systemd/system/‌​date.service
  • /usr/lib/systemd/system/systemd-hwdb-update.service

Thanks [WayBacknwildner for answering that question!

So after installing etckeeper and performing etckeeper init you can immediately remove it from the git repository:

# cd /etc
# git rm --cached /etc/udev/hwdb.bin
rm 'udev/hwdb.bin'
# git commit -m "no need for /etc/udev/hwdb.bin to be under revision control as systemd-hwdb maintains it"

For more background, see [WayBack] How to make Git “forget” about a file that was tracked but is now in .gitignore? – Stack Overflow.



Posted in *nix, *nix-tools, etckeeper, Linux, openSuSE, Power User, SuSE Linux, systemd, Tumbleweed | Leave a Comment »

Some Postfix configuration guidelines

Posted by jpluimers on 2019/02/08

Not just for Postfix are the first two guidelines:

  • Change one thing at a time
  • Save known working configurations

For the latter, I’m using etckeeper pushing to an external git repository hoster.

For Postfix are the others from [WayBackPostfix Configuration Guidelines.

One tip that’s missing, but saved my life numerous of times:

In /etc/postfix/main.cfg do not use this line ever:

inet_interfaces = $myhostname

If the resolving (through DNS or hosts file) of $myhostname fails for any reason in the future, then Postfix will not start at all, but in stead emit a fatal error like this:

/usr/sbin/postconf: fatal: parameter inet_interfaces: no local interface found for

Specify exact interfaces in stead, like any of these:

inet_interfaces = all

inet_interfaces = localhost

inet_interfaces =


Posted in *nix, *nix-tools, etckeeper, Linux, postfix, Power User | Leave a Comment »

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