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Archive for the ‘OpenSSL’ Category

openssl: checking out RSA private key files in .rsa and .pem format

Posted by jpluimers on 2019/03/19

While checking out an issue with the SSH server for ContinuaCI issue (see info below), I wanted to look at the files leading to the issue: .pem and .rsa files with the private key for the SSH server.

So I browsed through my series of openssl related articles to see if I already had made a script better explaining the cryptic openssl command-line parameters. I didn’t have it yet, but it turned out to be really simple:

C:\ProgramData\VSoft\ContinuaCI\SSHD>"C:\Program Files (x86)\Git\usr\bin\openssl.exe" rsa -in server_keypair.rsa
writing RSA key
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
...
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
C:\ProgramData\VSoft\ContinuaCI\SSHD>"C:\Program Files (x86)\Git\usr\bin\openssl.exe" rsa -in server_keypair.rsa -text
Private-Key: (1024 bit)
modulus:
    ..:..:..:.....
publicExponent: 35 (0x23)
privateExponent:
    ..:..:..:.....
prime1:
    ..:..:..:.....
prime2:
    ..:..:..:.....
exponent1:
    ..:..:..:.....
exponent2:
    ..:..:..:.....
coefficient:
    ..:..:..:.....
writing RSA key
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
...
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
C:\ProgramData\VSoft\ContinuaCI\SSHD>"C:\Program Files (x86)\Git\usr\bin\openssl.exe" rsa -in server_keypair.pem
Enter pass phrase for server_keypair.pem:
unable to load Private Key
2675996:error:06065064:digital envelope routines:EVP_DecryptFinal_ex:bad decrypt:evp_enc.c:529:
2675996:error:23077074:PKCS12 routines:PKCS12_pbe_crypt:pkcs12 cipherfinal error:p12_decr.c:108:
2675996:error:2306A075:PKCS12 routines:PKCS12_item_decrypt_d2i:pkcs12 pbe crypt error:p12_decr.c:139:
2675996:error:0907B00D:PEM routines:PEM_READ_BIO_PRIVATEKEY:ASN1 lib:pem_pkey.c:141:
C:\ProgramData\VSoft\ContinuaCI\SSHD>"C:\Program Files (x86)\Git\usr\bin\openssl.exe" rsa -in server_keypair.pem -passin pass:password
unable to load Private Key
2675996:error:06065064:digital envelope routines:EVP_DecryptFinal_ex:bad decrypt:evp_enc.c:529:
2675996:error:23077074:PKCS12 routines:PKCS12_pbe_crypt:pkcs12 cipherfinal error:p12_decr.c:108:
2675996:error:2306A075:PKCS12 routines:PKCS12_item_decrypt_d2i:pkcs12 pbe crypt error:p12_decr.c:139:
2675996:error:0907B00D:PEM routines:PEM_READ_BIO_PRIVATEKEY:ASN1 lib:pem_pkey.c:141:

The command-lines use the [WayBack]rsa tool with:

  • the -in parameter
  • (for the first file) the -text parameter to dump it into human readable form
  • (for the second file) the -passin parameter with a [WayBackpass phrase argument pass:password.

The server_keypair.pem file (having the header -----BEGIN ENCRYPTED PRIVATE KEY----- and footer -----END ENCRYPTED PRIVATE KEY-----) was a password protected RSA private key where somehow ContinuaCI had the wrong password for.

I’m not sure it’s a good idea that the server_keypair.pem file has not password at all.

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Continua CI, Continuous Integration, Development, OpenSSL, Power User, Security, Software Development | Leave a Comment »

ngHttp2 and OpenSSL win32/i386/x86 and win64/x64_86 (a.k.a. x86_64) builds for Windows

Posted by jpluimers on 2018/08/08

[WayBack] ngHttp2 DLLs has a simple a version scheme. The build inside the Windows PHP distribution includes these version numbers. The TreadSafe versions work as plug in replacement for github.com/grijjy/DelphiScalableClientSockets/tree/master/Bin which is used by github.com/grijjy/GrijjyFoundation/blob/master/Grijjy.Http.pas#L11. You obtain them via [WayBack] PHP For Windows: Binaries and sources Releases; and at the time of writing these were the most recent versions:

[WayBack] OpenSSL DLLs has a much more complex version scheme, as they are numeric but OpenSSL releases are not.

  • DLLs have four numbers a.b.c.d
  • OpenSSL versions have three numbers and a letter a.b.c.x
  • The letter matches the fourth digit, though the ones marked with * have not been used yet:
    # letter # letter # letter # letter # letter remark
    1 a 6 f 11 k 16 p 21 u
    2 b 7 g 12 l 17 q 22 v *
    3 c 8 h 13 m 18 r 23 w *
    4 d 9 i 14 n 19 s 24 x *
    5 e 10 j 15 o 20 t 25 y *
    26 z *

[WayBack] Index of /SSL has “Pre-compiled Win32/64 libraries without external dependencies to the Microsoft Visual Studio Runtime DLLs, except for the system provided msvcrt.dll.”

These work no matter what development/deployment stacks you use (including a Visual Studio based stack).

The most recent version as of writing is 1.0.2o, which maps to 1.0.2.20 which contains libeay32.dll and ssleay32.dll for both the i386-win32 and x86_64-win64 build (not sure why they both use 32 in the name):

openssl-1.0.2o-i386-win32.zip
openssl-1.0.2o-x64_86-win64.zip which supports x86_64 as this site is about the only one using x64_86 in the name

Background reading:

These binaries are for instance used by (most of them are behind or far behind on the OpenSSL version):

  • Avira Antivirus
  • subversion
  • git mingw64
  • VMware Tools
  • Microsoft OneDrive
  • Delphi Indy communications library

Speaking of which: this is a recent Delphi wrapper around libeay32.dll: [WayBack] GitHub – lminuti/Delphi-OpenSSL: Delphi implementation of OpenSSL

–jeroen

Posted in Delphi, Development, OpenSSL, Power User, Security, Software Development | 2 Comments »

Use TLS 1.2 or higher, as TLS 1.1 is phased out on many sites, after TLS 1.0/SLL has been disabled by most for a while now

Posted by jpluimers on 2018/07/23

If you get an error like this in one of your tools

OpenSSL: error:1407742E:SSL routines:SSL23_GET_SERVER_HELLO:tlsv1 alert protocol version

it means you are using a tool not yet properly supporting TLS 1.2 or higher.

Or in other words: update your tool set.

The reason is that – after turning off TLS 1.0 a while ago – more and more sites do the same for TLS 1.1.

A prime example of a site that warned on this in a clear way very early on is github:

Others have done this too, for instance:

TLS 1.0 is vulnerable to many attacks, and certain configurations of TLS 1.1 as well (see for instance [WayBack] What are the main vulnerabilities of TLS v1.1? – Information Security Stack Exchange), which means that properly configuring the non-vulnerable TLS 1.1 over times gets more and more complex. An important reason to say goodbye to that as well, as TLS 1.2 (from 2008) is readily available for a long time. The much more recent TLS 1.3 (from 2018) will take a while to proliferate.

I ran in the above error because on one of my systems, an old version of wget was luring around, so I dug up the easiest place to download recent Windows binaries for both win32 (x86) and win64 (x86_64):

[WayBack] eternallybored.org: GNU Wget for Windows having a table indicating the OpenSSL version for each wget build.

–jeroen

Reference: Transport Layer Security – Wikipedia: History and development

Posted in *nix, https, HTTPS/TLS security, OpenSSL, Power User, Security, wget | Leave a Comment »

Packet Sender is a good tool when debugging protocols: free utility to send & receive network packets. TCP, UDP, SSL

Posted by jpluimers on 2018/03/07

It was fitting to bump into [WayBack] Packet Sender is a good tool when debugging protocols…” Written by Dan Nagle… – Lars Fosdal – Google+ on the day presenting [WayBack] Conferences/Network-Protocol-Security.rst at master · jpluimers/Conferences · GitHub

It also means that libssh2-delphi is getting a bit more love soon and will move to github as well after a conversion from mercurial.

Some of the things I learned or got confirmed teaching the session (I love learning by teaching):

Here is some more info:

–jeroen

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Communications Development, Delphi, Development, Encryption, HTTP, https, HTTPS/TLS security, Internet protocol suite, Let's Encrypt (letsencrypt/certbot), OpenSSL, Power User, Security, Software Development, TCP, TLS | Leave a Comment »

ssl/ssh multiplexer

Posted by jpluimers on 2017/08/07

sslh accepts connections on specified ports, and forwards them further based on tests performed on the first data packet sent by the remote client.

Probes for HTTP, SSL, SSH, OpenVPN, tinc, XMPP are implemented, and any other protocol that can be tested using a regular expression, can be recognised. A typical use case is to allow serving several services on port 443 (e.g. to connect to ssh from inside a corporate firewall, which almost never block port 443) while still serving HTTPS on that port.

Hence sslh acts as a protocol demultiplexer, or a switchboard. Its name comes from its original function to serve SSH and HTTPS on the same port.

sslh supports IPv6, privilege dropping, transparent proxying, and more.

Interesting…

–jeroen

Posted in *nix, https, Linux, OpenSSL, OpenVPN, Power User, Security | Leave a Comment »

 
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